Jewish History

Explain the meaning of the following phrases or quotations, and also provide the historical significance (for modern Jewish history) and context (including relevant names, dates, circumstances) as part of each definition. Answers should be no less than one paragraph and no longer than one double-spaced page each.
Choose FIVE of the SIX term pairs/groups:
Progress Allied to Religion/Religion Allied to Progress::
Political Zionism/cultural Zionism::
Political antisemitism/social discrimination::
necessary vs. sufficient causes of the Holocaust ::

Over the course of this semester, we have studied three main periods of Jewish history: ancient, medieval, and modern. For each of these periods, explain the features that enable it to cohere as a distinctive historical era. For the medieval and modern periods, also explain how they were significantly different from their predecessors as to warrant a separate designation. In order to address the multiple dimensions of Jewish life, you should keep in mind for each period the questions we have addressed throughout the course: Where are the Jews? How are they constituted as a group? How do they interact with their neighbors? How do they practice their religion and/or culture? Use examples to illustrate your points, but avoid simply summarizing what happened in each period. The goal here is NOT to provide a comprehensive timeline or inventory of historical events, but rather to identify the larger unifying themes that make each period distinctive. If you disagree with the way the boundaries of these periods have been assigned in the course, offer an alternative and justify it.