How does the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia identify and support female gifted students?

How does the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia identify and support female gifted students?


With regards to a myriad of psychological studies, it is quite clear that each student has specific abilities and capacities of learning that are different from those of other students (Strelnieks, 2005).  This is because as described by the author they possess capabilities, which advance and fasten their learning outcomes. This is not the typical info you would find in an abstract because an abstract has to be self-explanatory and self-contained.. Please look closely at the way abstracts are worded in the key journals in your field. Unfortunately, the needs of female gifted students are not fully met especially by developing countries (sentence not really making sense although I comprehend the intent) including Saudi Arabia. In addition, they face a myriad of culture and globalization challenges like few career opportunities and limited chances to delve wrong word in leadership careers. In order to curtail the negative beliefs and misconceptions on female gifted this proposal (is not a proposal it is a critical review of a selection of existing literature) focuses on the study of the welfare of female gifted (welfare is not one of your core search terms – why? Just a check are you actually thinking clearly about search strategies?) students in Saudi.  It may help you to read up on the technique of the structured abstract for the next task

Statement of the Problem


The needs of female gifted students are not fully met especially by within countries such as Saudi Arabia (Aljughaiman & Tan, 2009) seeking to engage more fully with the global society. In addition, the authors allude that the implemented (awkward here) gifted educational programs are still new and insufficient, thus further developments are required. Moreover, it seems there are no studies that have documented the female gifted in Saudi education between culture and globalization (just be aware this is not a complete idea yet needs some more elaboration and to be possibly 2 sentences for clarity). The cultural and globalization standpoint of the Saudi play a profound role in the acquisition of necessary knowledge to identify, support and meet the complex interests of female gifted students (Mohammed, 2010). Therefore, there is a need to provide an overview of the current challenges what will an overview achieve? Is an overview actually research? that face Saudi female gifted students in terms of culture and globalization (this seems very broad maybe you need to define the focus more tightly eg are you talking about opportunities – employment, education? Try and imagine what sense the reader can make from what you say. Imagine explaining it to them and then writing in a way that addresses this) and future roles in this emerging global community. Explain more about what is meant by roles and ‘emerging’ This will give the female students, families and policy makers some insights and recommendations that will limit the faced challenges. Are you certain of this or are you striving to build an evidence base about the depth and type of challenges and this lit review is guiding such a project?

At this point DEFINE the problem anew – Then outline the parameters of your search – then explain how the paper is structured. These elements alert the research reader to the key elements underpinning the review and its communication.


Review of the Literature

Evolutionary Perspective on Giftedness

You need to intro Sternberg for the reader. What are you assuming about what they know? Sternberg (2010) defined that intelligence is (awkward here) the capacity to gain knowledge from experience, using metacognitive processes (is this a direct quote? Page ref? Also needs some more context positioning the definition for sake of accuracy as Sternberg’s work on intelligence has many strands, what follows does not do that) Learning is the ability to adapt this knowledge from the surrounding environment. Learning therefore may require different adaptations within different social and cultural contexts. People gifted in intelligence thus excel in these attributes, are relatively rare with regard to the level of the attributes, and productively can demonstrate that they possess these attributes (I’m sure this needs a page ref even though I cannot access the book to check – if not quotation it seems to be close paraphrasing). Sternberg (2010) also showed the interesting relationship(? Context) between Creativity and Giftedness which inclues mystical approaches to the study of creativity, pragmatic approaches and cognitive approaches. In addition, (in addition suggests you are building an argument but it is not really clear what that is. Where are you going and how can you help the reader vto grasp the direction? Also needs more paragraphing to help with this) Birren & Svensson (2005) explained from historical point of view that wisdom was attainable as cognitive knowing by using reflection, reason, and ethical deliberation. Religious wisdom, however, was based on faith and revelation from God. Sternberg & Jordan (2005) explained different approaches about wisdom and giftedness. They also stated that there is no evidence of intrinsic differences in “ethical giftedness” or “moral intelligence.” The difference in people’s behavior appears rather to be in their skill in completing a set of eight steps that, conjointly, produce ethical behavior. If we want to produce ethical giftedness, we have to develop it, not hope it will be a given in some group of intrinsically gifted children.

So what do you draw together from all the above. The jump to ethical giftedness is a surprise as I had not seen that coming, nor is it evident in title or sub-headings


Segue so the reader knows where you are going next. Also seems to need to go earlier in this section

According to Borland (2003), giftedness was first systematically defined for practice purposes by  its relationship to IQ. Although not always consistent in practice, an IQ of two standard deviation units above the population mean (usually 130) has been the most commonly used mark of gifted intelligence. Sternberg’s (1998) theory proposes three distinct forms of intelligence: academic, practical, and creative. Academic intelligence is similar to traditional IQ, but practical intelligence and creative intelligence are almost never represented in IQ measures. Practical intelligence refers to those abilities that relate a person to his or her surroundings; help the person interpret what is called for in social, personal and professional situations; and help the person form successful strategies for succeeding in real situations in the real world.

Why now move to assessment also I’m not sure the main focus of this next section is actually assessment rather seems more pedagogical

Assessment in Gifted Education

Erwin & Worrell (2012) emphasized that decisions regarding what talents will be recognized are critical in the process of identifying and nurturing giftedness. Societies differ in their valuing of exceptional abilities-which individuals are considered important, how they can be identified, and what should be done about developing them. The methods used to assess and evaluate talent potential directly or subtly reflect a society’s beliefs about giftedness. Ogurlu (2016) argued that the greater tendency for student-initiated discourse patterns in the gifted classroom in comparison to the non-gifted classroom suggested that teachers may vary in the level of control they exercise over classroom discourse according to the abilities of students in the classroom. A greater number of authentic questions were typically asked in the gifted classroom. Such questions, which may be more conducive to higher level and critical thinking may better address the needs of gifted students. Kelemen (2015) suggested outside activities for gifted children which will focus on individualization of the educational activity under the tutor`s coordination, stimulating the exceptional abilities through activities in children`s clubs, science and art clubs, contests and school Olympics. According to Kelemen (2015), the children`s progress and their achievements will be monitored through observation, comparison of their academic results, results in competitions and school Olympics and stimulating interventions.

Once again a big jump to a new topic.

Challenges raising a gifted child within the family

There is some research evidence that long-range outcomes for the gifted depends on the family environment (Winner, 2000). Renati et al. (2016) acknowledged that in the past, families of the gifted have been studied mainly for two reasons, which are to discover how family life creates or supports giftedness or eminence, or to understand how one gifted child affects siblings. There are few studies (evidence for this point, who says this?) that have examined the impact of gifted children on the lives of parents and highlighted that many gifted have unique needs and vulnerabilities. They found in their research that parents of gifted children face many of the very same parenting challenges that all parents have to face and successfully navigate. Furthermore, parents also have to deal with unique concerns about their gifted children’s psychosocial, intellectual and academic development that are unique sources of parenting stress and these stresses are almost similar in all cultures. On the other hand, Dwairy (2004) found that different parenting styles can have either a positive or negative impact on gifted adolescent mental health. Therefore, it is crucial for the parents of the gifted to better understand the unique stressors that they face and the resources that they find critical in order to portend favorable life outcomes. A family resilience framework provides a useful heuristic for thinking about how certain family practices can potentially enhance the well-being of all the family members (Walsh, 2003).

Now focus jumps to Saudi you have to work on the connections

Female Gifted Education in Saudi

Garni (2012) explains that, female gifted students in Saudi are eager to maintain their self-esteem, self-concept and self-confidence as they progress to higher classes. The female gifted in Saudi wish to acquire Islamic values, as well as the appropriate knowledge, attitude and practices to enable them positively face modern changes (Aljughaiman & Grigorenko, 2013). Their interests are to attain their educational goals and progress in the choice of their career path without facing any discrimination in form of religious and cultural aspects (Garni, 2012). This is because they will be efficient, flexible and sufficiently enhanced to stride in ?? meaning not clear the stiff international competition in the practical and scientific fields (Aljughaiman & Grigorenko, 2013).

However, there is still an alarming (why alarming? – it is a strong opinion) gap in the study and development of gifted education in Saudi Arabia (Winebrenner, 2009). VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh (2005) further explain that, the existing programs for gifted education are still new and thus highly in need of more evaluation and development to maximally meet the needs and interests of gifted students.Are we still talking about females?  On the same hand, Mohammed (2010) reports that there is an argument discussion (sorry words missing or something because not making sense) of the adopted of gifted education programs in Saudi Arabia, to either implement or neglect them within the Saudi context. (overall not flowing well needs more thorough editing)In addition, no steps have been undertaken to evaluate these programs with the aim of identifying the nature and effectiveness of the practices of the gifted education programs (Mohammed, 2010). Coon (2009) demonstrates that, sound scientific methods of evaluation should be used to ensure appropriate development of gifted education programs.

In most occasions, these programs (I think you will find you haven’t actually said much about what the programs are – or enough to give the reader a good enough idea) face budget cuts due to the controversy that exists regarding the attitudes and beliefs that the community, policy makers and teachers have concerning the welfare of female gifted students (refs needed is there a govt document re such cuts?)_. Razmjoo (2008) points out that, there are various misconceptions towards the welfare of female gifted students in school. For example, it is postulated that there is no need of subjecting (wrong word – there is no need to provide gifted programs for females…?) female gifted students to special programs because they will succeed in life and will be victorious on their own (Razmjoo, 2008). Razmjoo (2008) notes that, special education for the gifted students is still deemed by some individuals as superfluous, unnecessary and a waste of time, as well as resources. In fact, it is viewed as undemocratic to offer female gifted students special attention.  Also, it is believed that female gifted students are always getting support from their families, which makes them advantaged and most preferred over the other students  ??. According to Aljughaiman and Tan (2009), as well as Ibnian and Haban (2013), this is not the reality of the situation at hand. Most gifted students develop social-emotional discontent like depression because they are socially isolated by their peers, as well as the community. The authors explain that these misconceptions arise because there is inadequate information and knowledge about the exceptional educational needs and characteristics of female gifted students.

As a result (of what the work of the above authors? Not clear), Saudi Arabia is reviewing the most appropriate method of identifying female gifted students to use their abilities (in order to draw on their abilities…?) as future resources for the development of the welfare and economy of the country. The process of identifying female gifted students actually differs with regards to the type of gifted educational program that has been implemented (Mohammed, 2010). Garni (2012) explains that, In Saudi Arabia teachers are responsible for the selection of gifted students, which is done via the use of further testing such as the Group IQ test to identify special abilities, the WISC-R test to gauge intelligence levels and the Torrance test to identify creativity.

The majority of western theories focus on gauging the intelligence of female gifted students by measuring their cognitive and psychological abilities. Taylor & Milton (2006) believe that the use of accurate methods to identify female gifted students is highly productive because it not only identifies them but it also spells out what should be done to enable them meeting their full potential. These methods rely on the use of standardized tests.  This method is highly used by individuals that rely on the use of one-dimensional view, as well as the multifaceted (dimensional) theories of ability, to distinguish female gifted students from the others (Razmjoo, 2008). Waterhouse (2006) explains that this view is supported by the first theory of intelligence including Spearman’s theory, which emphasizes on the determination of the IQ proficiency of students.  However, this has raised controversy as the western theories have been doubted by the different cultural practices (think about the subject and object of this sentence and why it doesn’t make sense as is) and globalisation in the Saudi education system.


Research Questions these questions are not substantively linked to the literature, it is up to you to connect all the elements of the argument together in a conclusion to support them

  1. How does the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia identify and support female gifted students?
  2. What are the cultural challenges facing female gifted students in Saudi Arabia?
  3. What is the globalization challenges facing female gifted students in Saudi Arabia?

I’m not sure what is meant by this




Did you adopt selection criteria in choice of articles? if so make sure you explain them in the body of the work typically in the intro.

Style of referencing is suitable for articles but you need to refer to the style guide for other types as those included are often incomplete


Aljughaiman, A. & Tan, M. (2009). Anxiety in gifted female students in the Kingdom of

Saudi Arabia. Gifted and Talented International, 24(1), 1-6.

Aljughaiman, M. A. & Grigorenko, L. E. (2013). Growing up under pressure: The cultural and religious context of the Saudi system of gifted education. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 36(3), 307-322

Birren, J. E., & Svensson, C. M. (2005). Wisdom in history. A handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives, 3-31.authors – is it a chapter?

Borland, J. H. (2003). Rethinking gifted education, Teachers College Press where published?please use APA Style guide

Coon, P. (2009). Trigram: A gifted program model all students can enjoy. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 27 (5), 56-87.

Erwin, J. O., & Worrell, F. C. (2012). Assessment practices and the underrepresentation of minority students in gifted and talented education. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(1), 74-87.

Dwairy, M. (2004). Parenting styles and mental health of Arab gifted adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 48(4), 275-286.

Garni, A. A. (2012). Attitudes of future special education teachers towards gifted students and their education. Center for Learning Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 1-237.  Thesis?

Ibnian, S. & Haban, A. (2013). Implications of Multiple Intelligences Theory in ELT Field. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(4), 292-297.

Kelemen, G. (2015). “Gifted children and their special needs.” Journal Plus Education / Educatia Plus 12A: 128-138.

Mohammed, A. (2010). Evaluation of provisions for gifted students in Saudi Arabia. University of Wollongong, 1-305. ????is this a thesis please use appropriate citation style including that it is  PhD thesis etc

Ogurlu, U. (2016). “Inside a gifted class: Classroom discourse patterns, teacher and student questions, and teacher revoicing.” Australasian Journal of Gifted Education 25(1): 31. One page? Make sure you get this correct if more than one.

Razmjoo, S. (2008). On the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency. The Reading Matrix, 8(2), 155-174.

Renati, R., et al. (2016). “Challenges raising a gifted child Stress and resilience factors within the family.” Gifted Education International: 0261429416650948.?

Sternberg, R. J., et al. (2010). Explorations in giftedness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R., & Jordan, J. (Eds.). (2005). A handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (1998). A balance theory of wisdom. Review of general psychology, 2(4), 347.

Taylor, T., & Milton, M. (2006). Preparation for teaching gifted students: An investigation into university courses in Australia. Australasian Journal of Gifted Education, 15(1), 25-31.

Walsh, F. (2003). Family resilience: A framework for clinical practice. Family process, 42(1), 1-18.

Waterhouse, L. (2006). Inadequate evidence for multiple intelligences, Mozart effect, and emotional intelligence theories. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), 247- 255.

VanTassel-Baska, J., & Stambaugh, T. (2005). Challenges and possibilities for serving gifted learners in the regular classroom. Theory into Practice, 44(3), 211-217.

Winebrenner, S. (2009). Teaching gifted kids in the regular classroom: Strategies and techniques every teacher can use to meet the academic needs of the gifted and talented. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publication.

Winner, E. (2000). The origins and ends of giftedness. American psychologist, 55(1), 159.